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ERIC Number: EJ1006852
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Feb
Pages: 31
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 74
ISSN: ISSN-0010-4086
How Can Cross-Country Differences in the Practice of Grade Retention Be Explained? A Closer Look at National Educational Policy Factors
Goos, Mieke; Schreier, Brigitte Maria; Knipprath, Heidi Maria Eduard; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; Trautwein, Ulrich
Comparative Education Review, v57 n1 p54-84 Feb 2013
This study investigates the extent to which national educational policy factors can explain differences in the probability of students repeating a grade in primary and lower-secondary education across OECD member countries. Data from the PISA 2009 study, the OECD "Education at a Glance" brochures, and the TALIS 2007 study were analyzed by means of three-level logistic regression models. The results indicate that a remarkable amount of variation in the likelihood of student grade retention lies at the country level. National educational policy factors, however, only partly explain this variation, indicating that traditions and societal beliefs regarding the benefits of grade retention also play a role in the explanation for international differences in retention. (Contains 2 figures, 4 tables, and 14 footnotes.)
University of Chicago Press. Journals Division, P.O. Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637. Tel: 877-705-1878; Tel: 773-753-3347; Fax: 877-705-1879; Fax: 773-753-0811; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Program for International Student Assessment