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ERIC Number: EJ1006796
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Apr
Pages: 6
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 42
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0167
Is Stigma Internalized? The Longitudinal Impact of Public Stigma on Self-Stigma
Vogel, David L.; Bitman, Rachel L.; Hammer, Joseph H.; Wade, Nathaniel G.
Journal of Counseling Psychology, v60 n2 p311-316 Apr 2013
Stigma is considered an important barrier to seeking mental health services. Two types of stigma exist: public stigma and self-stigma. Theoretically, it has been argued that public stigma leads to the development of self-stigma. However, the empirical support for this assertion is limited to cross-sectional data. Therefore, the goal of this research was to examine the relationship between public stigma and self-stigma over time. Perceptions of public and self-stigma were measured at Time 1 (T1) and then again 3 months later at Time 2 (T2). Using structural equation modeling, we conducted a cross-lag analysis of public stigma and self-stigma among a sample of 448 college students. Consistent with assertions that public stigma leads to the development of self-stigma, we found that public stigma at T1 predicted self-stigma at T2, whereas the converse was not true. These findings suggest that if self-stigma develops from public stigma, interventions could be developed to interrupt this process at the individual level and reduce or eliminate self-stigma despite perceptions of public stigma. (Contains 1 table, 2 figures and 2 footnotes.)
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A