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ERIC Number: EJ1005865
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 19
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 28
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-6239-6008-7
ISSN: ISSN-1535-0584
Texas's Decision to Have Twelve Grades
Watlington, Kathy
American Educational History Journal, v39 n1 p145-163 2012
A majority of American students have taken the journey through schools that progressed from first to twelfth grade. So by the 1913 Committee on the Economy of Time in Education, American education featured a twelve-grade system quickly evolving from the forces of consolidation and corporate efficiency. Such was not the reality in Texas schools. The state's twelfth grade began with a recommendation from George Strayer. Under the distinguished leadership of Superintendent George Sims, Port Arthur took Strayer's recommendation, making Port Arthur the first Texas school district to move to a twelve-grade system. This article traces the slow and seemingly random dance that Texas's independent school districts made with this transition. First, why and how did the Port Arthur school system change to twelve grades? Which schools followed Port Arthur and how did they implement this change within their districts? Next, how was the idea of change to a twelve grade program debated over a fifteen year period? And when and why did the Texas Education Agency finally decide to take charge of the transition and what did that ultimately look like?
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Texas