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ERIC Number: EJ1005179
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Mar
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 27
ISSN: ISSN-1088-3576
The Effects of a Picture Activity Schedule for Students with Intellectual Disability to Complete a Sequence of Tasks Following Verbal Directions
Duttlinger, Cari; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bevill-Davis, Alicia; Douglas, Karen H.
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, v28 n1 p32-43 Mar 2013
We investigated instruction of independent creation of picture activity schedules (PASs) and how four middle school students with intellectual disability used them to complete tasks independently. A withdrawal design (A-BC-B-A-B) was used to evaluate whether the intervention had an effect on the dependent variable and to test for generalization to a community setting in a pre/post format. After instruction on the PAS, participants learned to self-manage a strategy that served as a reminder for the tasks they needed to complete. All participants exhibited increased abilities to complete a sequence of three or five tasks following verbal directions when using the PAS as compared with the conditions where no PAS was utilized. In addition, these results generalized to the community setting of a mall food court. Our findings have implications for enhancing the independent functioning of individuals with intellectual disability and reducing reliance on others, with the potential for greater levels of self-determination. (Contains 4 tables and 3 figures.)
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A