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ERIC Number: EJ1005135
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Feb
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 33
ISSN: ISSN-1531-7714
Studies of the Effect of Formative Assessment on Student Achievement: So Much More Is Needed
McMillan, James H.; Venable, Jessica C.; Varier, Divya
Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, v18 n2 Feb 2013
Kingston and Nash (2011) recently presented a meta-analysis of studies showing that the effect of formative assessment on K-12 student achievement may not be as robust as widely believed. This investigation analyzes the methodology used in the Kingston and Nash meta-analysis and provides further analyses of the studies included in the study. These analyses suggest, consistent with other reviews, that some of the conclusions reached by Kingston and Nash may not be credible. The studies used in the Kingston and Nash meta-analysis were limited by the nature of the selection process, the questionable quality of their methodologies, and the multiple ways formative assessment was defined and operationalized, often without inclusion of recognized formative assessment characteristics that are needed for successful practice. These limitations mitigate Kingston and Nash's conclusion that the median effect size of experimental studies reviewed suggests a much smaller overall impact than reported by others. Recommendations for further research in this area are summarized to establish an improved body of literature on the effects of formative assessment on student achievement.
Dr. Lawrence M. Rudner. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A