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ERIC Number: EJ1003401
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Jan
Pages: 9
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0891-4222
Psychological Adjustment and Levels of Self Esteem in Children with Visual-Motor Integration Difficulties Influences the Results of a Randomized Intervention Trial
Lahav, Orit; Apter, Alan; Ratzon, Navah Z.
Research in Developmental Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, v34 n1 p56-64 Jan 2013
This study evaluates how much the effects of intervention programs are influenced by pre-existing psychological adjustment and self-esteem levels in kindergarten and first grade children with poor visual-motor integration skills, from low socioeconomic backgrounds. One hundred and sixteen mainstream kindergarten and first-grade children, from low socioeconomic backgrounds, scoring below the 25th percentile on a measure of visual-motor integration (VMI) were recruited and randomly divided into two parallel intervention groups. One intervention group received directive visual-motor intervention (DVMI), while the second intervention group received a non-directive supportive intervention (NDSI). Tests were administered to evaluate visual-motor integration skills outcome. Children with higher baseline measures of psychological adjustment and self-esteem responded better in NDSI while children with lower baseline performance on psychological adjustment and self-esteem responded better in DVMI. This study suggests that children from low socioeconomic backgrounds with low VMI performance scores will benefit more from intervention programs if clinicians choose the type of intervention according to baseline psychological adjustment and self-esteem measures. (Contains 6 tables.)
Elsevier. 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO 63043. Tel: 800-325-4177; Tel: 314-447-8000; Fax: 314-447-8033; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; Grade 1; Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A