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ERIC Number: EJ1002970
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 35
ISSN: ISSN-0033-2933
Effects of Historical and Social Variables on Instruction Following
Kroger-Costa, Andreia; Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele
Psychological Record, v62 n4 p691-705 Fall 2012
The present study investigated the effect of the presence of the experimenter on behavioral sensitivity to contingency change. In history training, college students were exposed to differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) and fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, and in testing, to a fixed-interval (FI) schedule. For the control group, instructions were never provided, whereas for the without-observer and with-observer groups, inaccurate instructions were given (variable ratio [VR], fixed time [FT], and differential reinforcement of high rate [DRH], respectively). The experimenter was present during testing for the with-observer group. In history training, DRL response rates were lower than FR rates with or without instructions. In testing, the control and without-observer groups showed lower response rates and a more efficient behavioral patterning than did the with-observer group. These results indicate that instruction following was affected by the presence of the experimenter despite a history of no reinforcement for such behavior, and they suggest that instructional control may be strengthened by social contingencies. (Contains 3 figures and 2 footnotes.)
Southern Illinois University Carbondale. Mailcode 4609, Rehabilitation Institute, Carbondale, IL 62901-4609. Tel: 618-536-7704; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Brazil