ERIC Number: EJ1002880
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 100
Cultivating Our "Musical Bumps" while Fighting the "Progress of Popery": The Rise of Art and Music Education in the Mid-Nineteenth Century United States
Nash, Margaret A.
Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association, v49 n3 p193-212 2013
This article seeks to understand the social and cultural factors that led to the introduction of music and art education in public schools, a process that began in the middle decades of the nineteenth century. Based on archival material, including institutional catalogues, school board reports, magazine articles, and tracts, I demonstrate that music and art held varied meanings in this period, one of the most important of which was denominational competition. One major element in a nationwide promotion of the arts in the mid-nineteenth century was the revitalized Protestant contest for religious adherents in the wake of Catholic immigration. A second important, and often overlooked, aspect of music and art education was its vocational implications. Although some historians have relegated women's study of music and art to the reproduction of elite status, a significant aspect of these studies was vocational. In a world in which limited occupations were open to women, skill in music and art expanded women's options and, for some, made financial independence possible. In addition, although many of the factors involved in the rise of music and art education--such as nationalism, refinement, and health--were nongendered and applied to both women and men, the repercussions of these programs were quite gendered and may add to our understanding of the process by which the teaching force was feminized.
Descriptors: Females, Art Education, Music Education, Cultural Influences, United States History, Mental Health, Social History, Educational History, Social Influences, Public Schools, Program Development, Religious Factors, Immigration, Vocational Education, Womens Education
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
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