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ERIC Number: EJ1002007
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Oct
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 53
ISSN: ISSN-1554-5210
Promoting "Active Citizens"? The Critical Vision of NGOs over Citizenship Education as an Educational Priority across Europe
Ribeiro, Ana Bela; Rodrigues, Mariana; Caetano, Andreia; Pais, Sofia; Menezes, Isabel
International Journal of Progressive Education, v8 n3 p32-47 Oct 2012
In the last decades, Citizenship Education (CE) has been at the forefront of both educational policies and international research regarding curriculum design and impact on pupils' knowledge, values and skills. However, not only what citizenship "is" is diversely conceived by different democratic traditions (Eisenstadt, 2000; Heater, 1999) but, obviously, CE also involves organisations beyond the walls of schools. This paper confronts educational policies with the views of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 20 European countries. Results suggest that the vision of CE as a priority in educational policy documents is questioned by NGOs that consider schools are too focused on formal democracy and overemphasize respect for rules, values and responsibilities, rather than promoting critical, informed and active citizens. Especially in countries with an authoritarian past, NGOs consider that models of conformism and submission are still dominant, and emphasize the role of CE in promoting a strong civil society. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)
International Association of Educators. Egitim Fakultesi Dekanligi, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale 17100, Turkey. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A