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ERIC Number: EJ1001070
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 27
ISSN: ISSN-0827-3383
The Effect of Visual-Spatial Stimulation on Emergent Readers at Risk for Specific Learning Disability in Reading
Zascavage, Victoria Selden; McKenzie, Ginger Kelley; Buot, Max; Woods, Carol; Orton-Gillingham, Fellow
International Journal of Special Education, v27 n3 p176-187 2012
This study compared word recognition for words written in a traditional flat font to the same words written in a three-dimensional appearing font determined to create a right hemispheric stimulation. The participants were emergent readers enrolled in Montessori schools in the United States learning to read basic CVC (consonant, vowel, consonant) words and who were being taught with similar educational methodology. Analysis of error types for readers in the lower 20th percentile showed that vowel or consonant substitutions were more frequent for males than females (p less than 0.07), errors in which the students rhymed the word incorrectly with the previous word were more frequent in males (p less than 0.026), and word guessing errors were more frequent in older students (p less than 0.022). Letter/word transpositions (e.g., b/p; t/f; whole word, such as nap/pan were moderately more frequent for traditional flat print words (p less than 0.043). Among the 23 students who scored in the lowest 10th percentile (fewer than 42 out of 52 traditional flat print words read correctly), 9 increased their score by at least 10% in the three-dimensional appearing font when compared to their traditional flat print score; 5 of them increased by at least 20%. The largest improvement was from 35 traditional flat print words to 44 three-dimensional appearing prints, which translates to a 25.7% gain. For the student at risk for either a specific learning disability in reading or dyslexia, the use of three-dimensional font may provide enough a right hemispheric catalyst to increase the number of words recognized and read correctly. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)
International Journal of Special Education. 2889 Highbury Street, Vancouver, BC V6R 3T7, Canada. Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United States
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; No Child Left Behind Act 2001