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ERIC Number: ED570886
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 40
Abstractor: ERIC
Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study. Thirty Three Year Update, 1977-2010
Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean
Acosta - Carpenter
In 1970, prior to the 1972 enactment of Title IX, there were only 2.5 women's teams per school and a total of only about 16,000 female intercollegiate athletes. In 1977/1978, the academic year preceding the mandatory compliance date for Title IX, the number of varsity sports for women had grown to 5.61 per school. A decade later, in 1988, the number had grown to 7.71 and at the turn of the century, the growth continued to 8.14. A third of a century has seen great change. 2010 is a year characterized by stability in women's intercollegiate athletics. Even in the face of budget constraints women's participation is near an all time high. Although continuing to be low, the representation of females as head coaches of women's teams is consistent with its level of the past 4 years. The representation of females coaching men's teams is slightly increased although it remains remarkably low. Stability characterizes the administrative ranks as well. Although low, the percentage of female athletic directors has bounced back from its all time low in 2008 to a level more in line with the trend of the decade. Although the increase is small, more women hold positions within the administrative ranks, at all levels, than any time since the mid 1970s. This report is the latest update on a longitudinal national survey which examines: (1) the athletics job market for females; (2) participation opportunities for females; (3) head coaching opportunities for females; (4) assistant coaching opportunities for women; (5) administrative opportunities for women; (6) athletic training employment opportunities for women; and (7) sports information directors (SIDs) employment opportunities for women. [For prior reports, see ED570884 (2006) and ED570885 (2008).]
Acosta / Carpenter. P.O. Box 42, West Brookfield, MA 01585. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Smith College, Project on Women and Social Change; City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn College
Authoring Institution: Acosta/Carpenter
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Title IX Education Amendments 1972; Higher Education Act Title IX