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ERIC Number: ED570885
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2008
Pages: 41
Abstractor: ERIC
Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study. Thirty One Year Update, 1977-2008
Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean
Acosta - Carpenter
In 1970, prior to the 1972 enactment of Title IX, there were only 2.5 women's teams per school and a total of only about 16,000 female intercollegiate athletes. In 1977/1978, the academic year preceding the mandatory compliance date for Title IX, the number of varsity sports for women had grown to 5.61 per school. A decade later, in 1988, the number had grown to 7.71 and at the turn of the century, the growth continued to 8.14. Among many other things, the 2008 data show the highest ever participation by women in our nation's intercollegiate athletics programs. On the other hand, the data also continue to show a depressed representation of women as head coaches both of women's teams and of men's teams. Among the administrative ranks however, more females (both as a percentage and as an absolute number) serve as athletics directors than at any time since the mid 1970s. Indeed, more women hold positions within the administrative ranks, at all levels, than any time since the mid 1970s. This report is the latest update on a longitudinal national survey which examines: (1) the athletics job market for females; (2) participation opportunities for females; (3) head coaching opportunities for females; (4) assistant coaching opportunities for women; (5) administrative opportunities for women; (6) athletic training employment opportunities for women; and (7) sports information directors (SIDs) employment opportunities for women. [For the 2006 update, see ED570884.]
Acosta / Carpenter. P.O. Box 42, West Brookfield, MA 01585. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Smith College, Project on Women and Social Change; City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn College
Authoring Institution: Acosta/Carpenter
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Higher Education Act Title IX; Title IX Education Amendments 1972