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ERIC Number: ED570884
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Pages: 38
Abstractor: ERIC
Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study. Twenty Nine Year Update, 1977-2006
Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean
Acosta - Carpenter
In 1970, prior to the 1972 enactment of Title IX, there were only 2.5 women's teams per school and a total of only about 16,000 female intercollegiate athletes. In 1977/1978, the academic year preceding the mandatory compliance date for Title IX, the number of varsity sports for women had grown to 5.61 per school. A decade later, in 1988, the number had grown to 7.71 and at the turn of the century, the growth continued to 8.14. The 2006 data show the highest ever participation by women in our nation's intercollegiate athletics programs. On the other hand, the data also continue to show a depressed representation of women as head coaches and as head administrators of their programs. Indeed, 2006 represents the lowest ever ratio of female coaches for women's teams. This report is the latest update on a longitudinal national survey which examines: (1) the athletics job market for females; (2) participation opportunities for females; (3) head coaching opportunities for females; (4) assistant coaching opportunities for women; (5) administrative opportunities for women; (6) athletic training employment opportunities for women; and (7) sports information directors (SIDs) employment opportunities for women.
Acosta / Carpenter. P.O. Box 42, West Brookfield, MA 01585. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Smith College, Project on Women and Social Change; City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn College
Authoring Institution: Acosta/Carpenter
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Title IX Education Amendments 1972; Higher Education Act Title IX
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A