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ERIC Number: ED570312
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 98
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: 978-1-3398-1413-1
Effects of Computer Cognitive Training on Depression in Cognitively Impaired Seniors
Allen, Nara L.
ProQuest LLC, Psy.D. Dissertation, Hofstra University
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a computer cognitive training program on depression levels in older mildly cognitive impaired individuals. Peterson et al. (1999), defines mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a transitional stage in which an individual's memory deteriorates and his likelihood of developing Alzheimer's Disorder increases. The prevalence of MCI increases with age affecting approximately 18.8% to 28.3% of the older adult populations in the United States (Ward, Arrighi, Michels, & Cedarbaum, 2012). Studies, such as Butters et al. (2004), have found that depression often coexists with cognitive impairment. Although there are many available treatments for depression, treatments for MCI including computerized cognitive training programs are still being studied (Gunther, Schafer, Holzner & Kemmler, 2003). The few studies that have looked at the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training, such as the study done by Cipriani, Bianchetti, and Trabucchi (2006), have shown promising results. The participants, ages 68-91, were residents of an assisted living facility located in Westchester County, New York. They were previously diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), which is a 10 minute assessment that has eleven tasks evaluating delayed recall, verbal fluency, visuo-spatial skills, clock drawing ability, executive functioning, calculation, abstraction, language, orientation, attention, and concentration (Nasreddine et al., 2005). Participants also completed the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), which were given to determine the level of depression (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996; Yesavage et al., 1983). Participants participated in a bi-weekly computer cognitive training program known as Lumosity (Scanlon, Drescher & Sarkar, 2007). Data was collected prior to and during training over a six-week period. A follow-up was then conducted after a two-month period to determine whether the changes have been maintained over time. If computerized cognitive training programs can address symptoms with MCI, it is possible that the program can address depressive symptoms that are associated with MCI as well. Thus, it was hypothesized that a computer cognitive training program would lower rates of depression, as measured by the GDS in older individuals with a mild cognitive impairment, as measured by the MoCA. It also was hypothesized that a computer cognitive training program would lower rates of depression, as measured by the BDI-II, in older individuals with a mild cognitive impairment, as measured by the MoCA. Visual inspection via graphic display of the depression levels at baseline and at the follow-up sessions were used to analyze the data. The trend showed that there was only a decrease in depression levels according to the GDS and the BDI-II for Participant B. The depression levels did not change on the GDS or the BDI-II for the other participants. Therefore, neither hypothesis was supported. Implications for future research are also discussed including the application of different approaches such as a larger sample size, the utilization of a control group, and behavioral observations. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
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Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: New York
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Beck Depression Inventory