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ERIC Number: ED566965
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Mar
Pages: 7
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 40
ISSN: ISSN-0022-1031
Understanding Overconfidence: Theories of Intelligence, Preferential Attention, and Distorted Self-Assessment
Ehrlinger, Joyce; Mitchum, Ainsley L.; Dweck, Carol S.
Grantee Submission, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology v63 p94-100 Mar 2016
Knowing what we do not yet know is critical for learning. Nonetheless, people typically overestimate their prowess--but is this true of everyone? Three studies examined who shows overconfidence and why. Study 1 demonstrated that participants with an entity (fixed) theory of intelligence, those known to avoid negative information, showed significantly more overconfidence than those with more incremental (malleable) theories. In Study 2, participants who were taught an entity theory of intelligence allocated less attention to difficult problems than those taught an incremental theory. Participants in this entity condition also displayed more overconfidence than those in the incremental condition, and this difference in overconfidence was mediated by the observed bias in attention to difficult problems. Finally, in Study 3, directing participants' attention to difficult aspects of the task reduced the overconfidence of those with more entity views of intelligence. Implications for reducing biased self-assessments that can interfere with learning were discussed. [This article was published in "Journal of Experimental Social Psychology," v63 p94-100 Mar 2016.]
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: N/A
IES Funded: Yes
IES Grant or Contract Numbers: R305A130239