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ERIC Number: ED566683
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 36
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 187
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-1075-7031
The Biological Embedding of Child Abuse and Neglect Implications for Policy and Practice. Social Policy Report. Volume 28, Number 1
Jaffee, Sara R.; Christian, Cindy W.
Society for Research in Child Development
Each year within the US alone over 770,000 children are victimized by abuse and neglect (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010), and this figure is likely to underestimate the extent of the problem. Researchers have long recognized that maltreatment has adverse effects on children's mental health and academic achievement. Studies of adults show that adverse childhood experiences like maltreatment increase risk for chronic diseases of aging, including Type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. What the field does not fully understand is why maltreatment has such pervasive effects. Studies on the neuroscience of maltreatment have begun to offer some clues. Victims of maltreatment differ from non-victims with respect to brain structure and function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-(HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system function, immune function, and epigenetic markers. These studies identify potential mechanisms by which maltreatment increases risk for poor mental and physical health and poor school performance by affecting systems that subserve memory, attention, the response to stress, and inflammation. The findings highlight the importance of broadening the scope of child welfare beyond child protection to include child wellbeing. A focus on child well-being would require integrated services, wherein comprehensive mental and physical health care are routinely offered to victims of maltreatment and case workers, pediatricians, and psychologists would work as teams to determine how best to deliver care to children and families in the child welfare system. In working with the family, such efforts could potentially reduce the risk of re-victimization which commonly jeopardizes long-term gains in child well-being. [This document contains four commentaries: (1) "Neuroscience and Child Maltreatment Research Discovery through Translation" (Cheryl Anne Boyce, Valerie Maholmes, and Cathy Saptz Widom); (2) "Neuroscience and Child Maltreatment The Role of Epigenetics in Risk and Resilience in Maltreated Children" (Catherine Ann Orr and Joan Kaufman); (3) "Neuroscience Enhanced Child Maltreatment Interventions to Improve Outcomes" (Mary Dozier and Philip A. Fisher); and (4) "A Call to Action: Promoting Effective Interventions for Children in Child Welfare Using Neuroscience" (Bryan Samuels and Caryn Blitz).]
Society for Research in Child Development. 2950 South State Street Suite 401, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. Tel: 734-926-0600; Fax: 734-926-0601; e-mail: info@srcd.org; Web site: http://www.srcd.org
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Institutes of Health (DHHS)
Authoring Institution: Society for Research in Child Development
Grant or Contract Numbers: MH077087|MH098073|R01MH052135|R01MH084135