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ERIC Number: ED566004
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 127
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: 978-1-3037-0159-7
The Space Between: The Relationship between Instructional Time, Recess, and Reading
Hill, Dawne Beck
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Capella University
The purpose of this two-phase mixed-methods study was to describe the relationship of the ratio of the number of minutes of instructional classroom time to the number of minutes of scheduled unstructured recess time and the reading scores of fourth- and fifth-grade students in Title I schools in the state of Texas. Further, the beliefs of teachers in the fourth-and fifth-grades at Texas Title I schools regarding the impact of additional instructional minutes, the necessity of daily recess minutes, and teacher's views on the existing schedule of instructional time and recess time in their schools was used to develop a deeper understanding of the quantitative results. The results of this study provide empirical evidence that there is a significant relationship between the ratio of the number of minutes of classroom instructional time to the number of minutes of unstructured recess time and reading achievement scores. Results for the correlations showed significance for fourth graders (r = 0.31, p < 0.001) and showed significance for fifth graders (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). It is hoped that this evidence might inform instructional practices to include a reasonable ratio of instructional time to recess time for fourth- and fifth-grade students in the state of Texas. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Grade 5; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Texas