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ERIC Number: ED565538
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 192
Abstractor: As Provided
ISBN: 978-1-3036-8317-6
Banned and Punished: A Study of Disciplinary Consequences and Reading Achievement among Middle School Students
Thomas, Erica M.
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Capella University
The impact that removal of students from the educational setting has on student reading achievement (and later life outcomes) was the impetus for this study which sought to identify whether a relationship existed between an increasingly greater frequency of out of school suspension (OSS days) and reading achievement for middle school students. This relationship was tested in the form of a quantitative, causal-comparative study. Despite that research points to the alienating affects of school suspensions on student motivation, these consequences are still implemented. This study contributed to the field of educational leadership by refining or adding to Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation specifically focusing on the hierarchy of needs and how this related to academic achievement. The research questions explored the relationship between OSS frequency and reading achievement as measured with Delaware Comprehensive Assessment System (DCAS) scores. Furthermore, statistical differences were explored between OSS frequency and reading achievement DCAS scores based on race, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and special education status. The target population of interest was seventh and eighth grade middle school students within an urban, low socioeconomic setting. The sample included seventh and eighth grade students at a Delaware middle school for the 2011-2012 school year whom had taken the spring reading DCAS. Results indicated that there was a significant relationship between OSS frequency and reading achievement. More specifically, there was a negative, moderate correlation for both seventh and eighth grade students. This was followed by statistical testing of the independent variables of OSS days, race, SES, gender, and special education status as well the dependent variable reading achievement scores. Results were less obvious for these analyses. OSS frequency did not have a significant interaction based on SES, gender, or special education status for both seventh and eighth grade students; however, significant differences did exist for race and OSS days interactions in seventh grade. Despite the lack of statistical significance amongst some of these variables, further exploration of the data through additional statistical tests revealed other data patterns, which may have future implications on administrative practices regarding disproportionality, loss of instructional time, and reading achievement. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Middle Schools; Secondary Education; Junior High Schools; Grade 7; Elementary Education; Grade 8
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Delaware