NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
ERIC Number: ED562951
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 81
Abstractor: As Provided
ISBN: 978-1-3034-8485-8
The Effects of Interspersal and Reinforcement on Math Fact Accuracy and Learning Rate
Rumberger, Jessica L.
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati
Mathematics skill acquisition is a crucial component of education and ongoing research is needed to determine quality instructional techniques. A ubiquitous instructional question is how to manage time. This study investigated several flashcard presentation methods to determine the one that would provide the most learning in a set amount of time. A multi-element design was planned for a study comparing the effects of the interspersal (IS) and traditional drill (TD) flashcard methods with and without additional contingent reinforcement on learning rate and accuracy of unknown math facts. Participants included 5 third-grade students selected based on teacher concern with their math fact knowledge. While the areas of IS and positive reinforcement are well researched, less research exists for combining and comparing the two variables for math skill acquisition. The reinforcement conditions (TD+R and IS+R) consisted of access to a prize box based on improvement of learning rate. The TD and TD+R conditions were comprised of the presentation of seven unknown facts per trial, while the IS and IS+R conditions were comprised of the addition of known facts folded in after the presentation of two unknown facts for a total of seven facts per trial (i.e., K, U, U, K, U, U, K). A consistent amount of total facts was used to control for instructional time to determine the technique that would yield the best results in that time frame. Accuracy and learning rate data were visually analyzed by looking at trend and level of data across the four conditions. The traditional drill + reinforcement (TD+R) condition led to the highest accuracy and learning rate levels for 4 out of 5 students. Practical implications, limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 3; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A