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ERIC Number: ED562704
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 13
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 8
Efficacy of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the Primary Grades
DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Puiwa; Bellinger, Jill; Cheng, Weiyi
Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness
Teaching children to get along with others, care about themselves, and actively participate in learning are three of the most important outcomes of the schooling process. Yet children in some schools are not achieving these outcomes, and many educators have not received adequate training to create instructional environments that facilitate these outcomes. As a consequence, some schools have become places where children feel uncomfortable, unsupported, and ultimately, uninterested in learning. The genesis of ineffective instructional environments and underachieving students is complex and varies across individuals and schools/communities. Consequently, the solutions to improving learning, preventing or reducing inappropriate behavior, and facilitating the prosocial development of students require multifaceted and sustained interventions. The Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) is a comprehensive program that integrates multiple levels of assessment and intervention to improve children's social skills and engagement in classroom learning. The Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) is the universal component of the SSIS, and it has been developed to help students learn the 10 social skills that teachers have identified as most critical to classroom success. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the SSIS-CIP using a "Multi-Site Cluster Randomized Trial" ("CRT"). Specifically, the authors hypothesized that children in classrooms implementing SSIS-CIP would demonstrate improved social skills compared to children in non-implementing (business-as-usual) classrooms. In addition, children in SSIS-CIP classrooms were expected to demonstrate increased academic engagement during classroom instruction.The study was conducted in two Pennsylvania school districts located in opposite ends of the state. One is a small urban district, while the other is a small rural district that is similar in size to many of the other rural districts within the state. Specifically, 6 schools (4 from the larger urban district, 2 from the smaller district) participated in the study. Child-level data were collected before and after SSIS-CIP implementation in the classrooms randomly assigned to the "treatment" condition. Specifically, two measures were used to assess key outcome variables related to students' classroom behavior (Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scale, Cooperative Learning Observation Code for Kids). In addition, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System was used to assess the instructional environment in each participating classroom before and after treatment implementation. Finally, structured observations were used to assess fidelity of implementation of the SSIS-CIP curriculum in classrooms randomly assigned to the intervention condition. Based on the results of this study, the SSIS-CIP yields small-medium positive effects (increases) in prosocial behavior (overall, communication, cooperation, responsibility, empathy, social engagement, social skills intervention composite). In addition, SSIS-CIP positively impacted academic engagement and motivation, suggesting there may be academic benefits from its implementation. Across all of these variables, the effects of SSIS-CIP appear to be more specific to those children with more severe deficits in these areas prior to SSIS-CIP implementation. Tables and figures are appended.
Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. 2040 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208. Tel: 202-495-0920; Fax: 202-640-4401; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (SREE)
Identifiers - Location: Pennsylvania