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ERIC Number: ED562520
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Pages: 7
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 16
The Long-Term Effects of Tulsa Pre-K Program on Academic Outcomes
Gormley, Bill; Phillips, Deborah; Anderson, Sara
Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness
President Obama and others have demonstrated considerable interest in the Tulsa school-based pre-K program, one of a handful of universal pre-K programs in the U.S. The short-term effects of high-quality pre-K on school readiness are now well-established. At the same time, questions have been raised as to whether these effects persist over time. Understanding if short-term gains persist or fade out is of utmost importance for policymakers, educators, and parents for informed funding and placement decisions. This paper, with new data from 8th grade--and from 7th graders who were retained in grade--examines the effects of the Tulsa pre-K program on grade retention, special education placement, and school attendance and performance, as measured by middle school absenteeism and letter grades. Four sources of administrative data permit enhanced analyses: Tulsa Public Schools (TPS) data, plus data from the three nearby school districts to which TPS students are most likely to migrate over time. The final sample size consists of 2,402 students in TPS or neighboring districts. Data are derived from school administrative records from Tulsa Public Schools, Broken Arrow Public Schools, Union Public Schools, and Jenks Public Schools. The data were initially collected in 2006, when the children were in kindergarten in TPS. Follow-ups occurred when the children were in third and seventh/eighth grades. Importantly, the sample includes children who were in pre-K in 2005 and those who were not. To supplement administrative data, researchers collected survey data from parents. Retention in grade, special education placement, school absenteeism, and GPA serve as outcomes. Preliminary analyses suggest that pre-K attendance (vs. no pre-K) may be associated with a decreased likelihood of being retained in grade, net gender, race/ethnicity, age, free/reduced lunch status, and school district. A table is appended.
Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. 2040 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208. Tel: 202-495-0920; Fax: 202-640-4401; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: Preschool Education; Early Childhood Education; Grade 8; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Elementary Education; Secondary Education; Grade 7; Grade 3; Primary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (SREE)
Identifiers - Location: Oklahoma