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ERIC Number: ED561994
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Feb
Pages: 15
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: N/A
The Case for Improving and Expanding Time in School: A Review of Key Research and Practice. Updated and Revised February 2015
Farbman, David A.
National Center on Time & Learning
How can more time in school lead to more learning and, by extension, greater success in life? As this report will highlight, both research and practice indicate that adding time to the school day and/or year can have a meaningfully positive impact on student proficiency and, indeed, upon a child's entire educational experience. Such enhancement can be especially consequential for economically disadvantaged students, who tend to enter school trailing behind their more affluent peers academically, continue to lag as they proceed through each grade, and have fewer opportunities outside of school for learning. For these millions of students, more time in school can be a path to equity. The evidence makes clear that expanding school time holds this potential because, when planned and implemented well, it confers three distinct, though interdependent, benefits to both students and teachers: (1) More engaged time in academic classes, allowing broader and deeper coverage of curricula, as well as more individualized learning support; (2) More dedicated time for teacher collaboration and embedded professional development that enable educators to strengthen instruction and develop a shared commitment to upholding high expectations; and (3) More time devoted to enrichment classes and activities that expand students' educational experiences and boost engagement in school. This report explores these three benefits, which emerge as a redesigned education, built upon a longer school day and year, opens up new learning and growth opportunities. Using a mix of formal research inquiries and effective practices studies from the field, evidence is considered that demonstrates how time relates to each of the three benefits. Along with explicating the value that more time in schools can bring, the research also makes clear that time is a resource which must be used well and in concert with a continuous focus on quality implementation to realize its full potential. [This is an updated report from 2012. For the 2012 report "The Case for Improving and Expanding Time in School: A Review of Key Research and Practice," see ED534894.]
National Center on Time & Learning. 24 School Street 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02108. Tel: 617-378-3940; Fax: 617-723-6746; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Center on Time & Learning