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ERIC Number: ED561867
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Pages: 91
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 46
A Review of the Major School Counseling Policy Studies in the United States: 2000-2014. Research Monograph
Carey, John C.; Martin, Ian
Ronald H. Fredrickson Center for School Counseling Outcome Research & Evaluation
The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the major policy studies concerning school counseling in the United States that were disseminated between 2000 and 2014. In all, reviewers located 37 documents that were disseminated between 2000 and 2014, and that were either intentionally written with a focus on policy implications or were frequently used to attempt to influence policy decision-making. The review is organized by types of policy studies: Literature Reviews; Survey Research; Statewide Evaluations of School Counseling Programs; State Evaluations of School Counseling Practice; Existing Database Investigations of School Counseling; Research Identifying Elements of Exemplary Practice; Studies of Evaluation Capacity; and Practices in School Counseling. The results of several of the reviewed studies raise the question as to whether the role of the school counselor in high school and the range of duties associated with this role has become overly broad. Studies suggest that counselors cannot adequately focus their work on improving students' academic achievement and promoting college access partly because of this impossibly broad role. Lower student-to-counselor ratios were consistently found to be associated with higher attendance rates, higher college application rates, lower discipline rates, and (for elementary students) enhanced academic achievement. Government policies reducing these ratios (especially in states with particularly high ratios) would be expected to result in enhanced benefits to students. However, it is still unclear whether reducing ratios is the most cost-effective way to achieve policy objectives. Future policy research should use a cost-benefits approach to identify the most effective staffing patterns needed to achieve critical policy objectives in school counseling.
Ronald H. Fredrickson Center for School Counseling Outcome Research & Evaluation. 357 Hills South College of Education, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9308. Tel: 413-545-3619; Fax: 413-545-1523; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative; Historical Materials
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education; High Schools; Secondary Education; Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: University of Massachusetts Amherst, Ronald H. Fredrickson Center for School Counseling Outcome Research & Evaluation (CSCORE); American Counseling Association