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ERIC Number: ED560672
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Feb
Pages: 50
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 49
Impact of North Carolina's Early Childhood Initiatives on Special Education Placements in Third Grade. Working Paper 121
Muschkin, Clara G.; Ladd, Helen F.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER)
This study examines the community-wide effects of investments in two early childhood initiatives in North Carolina (Smart Start and More at Four) on the likelihood of a student being placed into special education. We take advantage of variation across North Carolina counties and years in the timing of the introduction and funding levels of the two programs to identify their effects on third-grade outcomes. We find that both programs significantly reduce the likelihood of special education placement in the third grade, resulting in considerable cost savings to the state. The effects of the two programs differ across categories of disability, but do not vary significantly across subgroups of children identified by race, ethnicity, and maternal education levels. The following are appended: (1) Tables and Figures; (2) Exceptionality Classifications by Type of Disability (1997-2010); (3) Variable Description; and (4) Any Exceptionality Models with Additional Covariates.
National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research. American Institutes for Research, 1000 Thomas Jefferson Street NW, Washington, DC 20007. Tel: 202-403-5000; Fax: 202-403-5454; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 3; Primary Education; Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education; Preschool Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER) at American Institutes for Research
Identifiers - Location: North Carolina
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R305C120008