NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
ERIC Number: ED560291
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 203
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: 978-1-3033-4783-2
Efficacy of Attention to Commas (A2C) Strategy for Sentence Comprehension in English Language Learners (ELLs)
Benitez-Rivera, Wilma I.
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Howard University
Reading is an active process where readers sometimes have difficulty understanding what they read. Ultimately, readers are required to combine the meaning of each sentence in a text in order to achieve text-level comprehension. Otherwise, the reader is going to have great difficulty with text-level comprehension. Factors such as sentence length and complexity are important when understanding a sentence. In addition, punctuation marks, such as commas, are also important factors that can enhance a reader's ability to understand a sentence. For students in fourth grade, reading becomes one of the main sources of learning new information. However, students from certain linguistic backgrounds, find reading challenging. For instance, fourth grade English Language Learner (ELL) students' average reading scores are substantially below their non-ELL peers. Consequently, ELLs may require attention placed on specific strategies to improve their reading comprehension. This study seeks to investigate whether ELL students with reading difficulty experience more comprehension difficulty understanding sentences with non-restrictive commas than ELL students without reading difficulty, and determine the efficacy of a reading strategy known as Attention to Commas (A2C). Participants in the study included eight fourth-grade English Language Learner (ELL) (Spanish/English) students. Four participants had reading abilities at least one year below their grade level, while the other four participants had their reading abilities on/above grade level. All students were administered the Knowledge about Commas Protocol (KACP) which determined that participants with reading difficulty statistically made more errors understanding sentences with non-restrictive commas. Results showed that the A2C strategy had a positive effect on the reading comprehension of sentences with non-restrictive commas for all participants with reading difficulty. All participants with reading difficulty received six training sessions of the A2C strategy, two sessions for spontaneous use of the strategy without training, and two maintenance sessions. Qualitative analyses revealed that students' explanation of their thinking process demonstrated that A2C was an effective strategy for sentence comprehension. In addition, results showed that participants increased their frequency of use of pauses at the commas while reading aloud. Findings have implications for speech-language pathologists, teachers, and future research. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A