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ERIC Number: ED559072
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 158
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: 978-1-3032-8102-0
An Academic Comparison of Third Grade Reading Scores: Reflecting the Impact of Four-Year-Old Kindergarten
Towns, Debra
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Cardinal Stritch University
In Wisconsin, increased academic performance has been a general assumption supporting the institutionalization and public funding of early childhood instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between attendance in public four-year-old kindergarten and elementary level reading performance. This study observed and compared differences in reading performance in the third grade that exist between students who were enrolled in formal public four-year-old kindergarten and students who were not. The statewide reading test scores available to the public were employed. Data were collected from the public record held at the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI). In addition to the reading score data, this researcher observed four-year-old kindergarten classrooms in action and affirmed the observations with the classroom teachers in the fall of the 2011. The intent of the observations was to identify how academic and classroom activities in these kindergartens reflected three specific criteria that previous research has determined is a precursor for reading readiness; the variety of classroom literacy activities provided, the impact of an attentive adult providing regular assistance to children learning to read, and the explicit reading strategies, skills, concepts, and mechanics that are taught in these classrooms. Using the publicly recorded testing scores from Wisconsin DPI, the findings did not reveal a statistically significant difference in the third grade reading scores of children who attended four-year-old kindergarten and children who did not. The classroom observations affirmed by the teachers revealed that all three criteria sought were present at varying intensities in the sample kindergartens. The significance of this research indicated that exposure to four-year-old kindergarten alone did not necessarily improve performance on the third grade reading assessment. The qualitative observations and surveys of teacher affirmations, however, revealed that the classroom criteria identified to enhance pre-reading skills was practiced by teachers in these four-year-old kindergartens in a variety of applications. This research also implied that additional study to determine what causes improvement on the third grade reading assessment is warranted. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 3; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Wisconsin