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ERIC Number: ED558787
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Jan-7
Pages: 2
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: N/A
School Climate & Discipline. California Children's Report Card, 2014
Children Now
The elements of school climate include the safety and overall well-being of students, as well as students' sense of connectedness and schools' discipline practices and physical environments. In 2012, 48% of suspensions in California were due to "willful defiance," an overly broad and subjective category defined as "disrupting school activities or otherwise willfully defying the valid authority of school staff," including disruptive behavior, such as eye rolling, coming to class late or talking back to a teacher. Positive school climate, which includes connectedness, is associated with higher academic achievement and healthy behavioral outcomes for students. However, only 43% of California high school students report having a high level of connectedness to their school. This brief report highlights data in chart form for the following data sets: (1) Higher student achievement is associated with safer and more supportive and engaging high schools; and (2) Suspensions for "willful defiance" disproportionately impact Latino and African American students.
Children Now. 1212 Broadway 5th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612. Tel: 510-763-2444; Fax: 510-763-1974; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative; Numerical/Quantitative Data
Education Level: High Schools; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Children Now
Identifiers - Location: California