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ERIC Number: ED557536
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 148
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: 978-1-3211-7330-7
A Quasi-Experimental Study Investigating the Effect of Scent on Students' Memory of Multiplication Facts and Math Anxiety
Leap, Evelyn M.
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Robert Morris University
This quasi-experimental study was conducted with two fifth grade classrooms to investigate the effect of scent on students' acquisition and retention of multiplication facts and math anxiety. Forty participants received daily instruction for nine weeks, using a strategy-rich multiplication program called Factivation. Students in the Double Smencil Group (DS) received instruction and used Smencils (scented pencils) in Weeks 3 to 9. The Single Smencil Group (SS) received instruction and used Smencils in Weeks 7 to 9. Both classrooms were given a 21-question pre- and post- math anxiety survey adapted from Mathipedia. Lastly, each student wrote a six-sentence paragraph describing their experience while using the Smencils. The results indicate that the two classrooms had approximately the same level of multiplication ability when they started. There was a significant increase from the pre-test to the post-test in each classroom. Depending on the week of the post-test, there were significant differences within the classrooms at different times. The results also conclude that there was a significant reduction in anxiety in the Double Smencil Group, even though anxiety decreased within each classroom. Various types of scents did have an impact on student performance and anxiety. Most of the students enjoyed using the Smencils, loved the scent, and claimed it lowered their math anxiety if they had some level of anxiety, and that the scent helped them remember the multiplication facts. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Grade 5; Intermediate Grades; Middle Schools; Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A