ERIC Number: ED556482
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
What Do We Know about the Long-Term Impacts of Teacher Value-Added? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 15
Raudenbush, Stephen W.
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
Proposals to evaluate teachers based on their "value-added" to student test scores generate intense debate. Underlying the debate are concerns about three factors: "bias," "precision," and "relevance." Previous Carnegie Foundation briefs have detailed the reasons why the first two are significant concerns. But, even if value-added scores were unbiased and reasonably precise, their usefulness for evaluating teaching would still depend on the third factor--their relevance to the aims of schooling. The aim of this brief is to consider a key aspect of the relevance of value-added scores: their "predictive validity"--whether teachers who produce high value-added on achievement tests also engender lasting cognitive and non-cognitive skills that help prepare their students for success in later life. Herein, the author reviews 10 studies of the persistence of value-added scores. In each case, researchers compute value-added scores in an "initial year" and then in subsequent years. All studies show that value-added scores tend to fade out over time. Five years after the initial year, it appears that 75 percent to 100 percent of the initial impact has disappeared. This brief considers: (1) the size of the initial value-added effects; (2) the persistence of initial value-added; (3) reported impacts on adult outcomes; (4) potential explanations for these findings and suggestions for further research; and (5) implications for school practice.
Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Academic Achievement, Teacher Evaluation, Scores, Achievement Gains, Predictive Validity, Outcomes of Education
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 51 Vista Lane, Stanford, CA 94305. Tel: 650-566-5102; Fax: 650-326-0278; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Web site: http://www.carnegiefoundation.org
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
IES Funded: Yes
IES Cited: ED565615