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ERIC Number: ED555608
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 28
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 15
The Resilience of Women in Higher Education in Afghanistan. Study No 1: Obstacles and Opportunities in Women's Enrollment and Graduation; Study No. 2: The Human, Social and Institutional Resilience of Female Doctors and Postgraduate Residency Programs. Resilience in Education Settings (RES)-Research Studies Series
Kosha, Afifa; Oriya, Spozhmay; Nabi, Tahira; Halim, Sabera; Hofyani, Sohaila; Liwal, Abida; Safi, Najibullah; Sahak, Mohamad Nadir; Noormal, Bashir
World Bank
Female access to higher education in Afghanistan has been and continues to be limited. At the basic education level, the country has made great advances since 2000; it increased access from 900,000 students in 2000, almost all boys, to 6.7 million students in 2009, and girl's enrollment increased from 5,000 under the Taliban to 2.4 million in the same time period (Afghanistan, Ministry of Education 2009-2010). Seventy-one percent are currently enrolled in primary and middle school (Grades 1-9) and 29 percent are enrolled in secondary education (Grades 10-12; Samady 2013). The post-secondary gains for girls have already increased, as 120,000 girls have graduated from secondary school, and 15,000 have enrolled in universities (George W. Bush Institute 2013). Every year, more than 100,000 secondary school graduates write the Kankor, the nationwide higher education entrance exam, but due to insufficient spaces and limited capacity, only about half of those students find a spot at the government universities and colleges (UN Women 2013). Of the total number of university students, in 2009 only 24.8 percent were female (CEDAW 2011). The issue is not only access, but also retention and graduation. Even when female students enter universities, they require relevant support for gender-specific risks to help them complete their higher education careers. The authors need to learn more about the barriers to entering higher education, as well as to graduating successfully. Equally important is the need to understand what are the strengths, opportunities and resources that can help young girls and women consider, access, and acquire a quality higher education degree to contribute to the on-going development of their families, society and the country. The following are appended: (1) Study No. 1: Focus group guide for female higher education; (2) Study No 1: Focus group guide for female secondary school students and summary of answers; and (3) Study No. 2: Interview guide.
World Bank Publications. 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433. Tel: 202-458-4500; Fax: 202-552-1500; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education; High Schools; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank
Identifiers - Location: Afghanistan