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ERIC Number: ED555577
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Jun
Pages: 28
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 13
High School Grade Inflation from 2004 to 2011. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (3)
Zhang, Qian; Sanchez, Edgar I.
ACT, Inc.
This study explores inflation in high school grade point average (HSGPA), defined as trend over time in the conditional average of HSGPA, given ACT® Composite score. The time period considered is 2004 to 2011. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the study updates a previous analysis of Woodruff and Ziomek (2004). The study also investigates variation in grade inflation across high schools and how this variation is related to school demographic characteristics. Although researchers have demonstrated the existence of high school grade inflation before 2001, results from this study show little evidence of overall grade inflation in recent years. There is, however, significant variation in grade inflation/deflation among high schools. This variation was not found to be related to different levels of school poverty or minority enrollment.
ACT, Inc. 500 ACT Drive, P.O. Box 168, Iowa City, IA 52243-0168. Tel: 319-337-1270; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: High Schools; Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: ACT, Inc.
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: ACT Assessment