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ERIC Number: ED551929
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 255
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: 978-1-2678-6652-3
ISSN: N/A
The Effects of Point-of-View Video Modeling on Symbolic Play Actions and Play-Associated Language Utterances in Preschoolers with Autism
Bonnet, Lauren Kravetz
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, George Mason University
This single-subject research study was designed to examine the effects of point-of-view video modeling (POVM) on the symbolic play actions and play-associated language of four preschool students with autism. A multiple baseline design across participants was conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of using POVM as an intervention for students with autism. The participants were between the ages of 3 and 4 years old and enrolled in a special education preschool program in a public school district in a Mid-Atlantic state. Students were paired with typically developing preschool peers from general education classes at the same school as the participants with autism. Prior to the implementation of the video model, baseline data were collected from students during play with a randomly selected play partner participant and the same materials later shown in the video model. Regulated randomization procedures for multiple baseline design were used to randomize students to each tier of intervention and randomly assign the treatment starting point from a designated interval of acceptable start points. Dependent measures included (a) scripted symbolic play actions, (b) scripted play-associated language utterances, (c) spontaneous symbolic play actions, and (d) spontaneous play-associated language utterances. During intervention, the participants with autism were shown a video clip demonstrating symbolic play actions and play-associated language utterances from their perspective immediately prior to engaging in a 7-minute play session with a play partner participant. The variety of symbolic play actions and play-associated language utterances were recorded and measured during all phases. Additionally, partial interval recording was used to record frequency of inappropriate play behaviors. Maintenance data were collected after the immediate removal of the POVM and one week after the conclusion of the intervention phase. Generalization data were collected for a novel but similar play set to that in the video model. A checklist for procedural reliability was completed for 68% of sessions across all phases and participants and calculated to be 100%. Interobserver agreement was calculated for 31.58% of sessions across all phases and participants and was averaged at 90.81%. Social validity measures were collected from the teacher, instructional assistants, and therapists that work with each participant. Additionally, information about student perceptions was collected from each participant using a visual choice menu. A visual analysis was conducted for the data collected across the four dependent variables and one ancillary finding for each participant. The visual analysis involved interpretation of the level, trend, variability, overlap, immediacy, and consistency of data points. Percent of Non-overlapping Data (PND) and randomization tests were also used for analysis. Overall findings from the study indicate that (a) three out of four preschool participants with autism increased the variety of scripted symbolic play actions after watching the POVM, (b) three out of four preschool participants with autism increased the variety of spontaneous symbolic play actions after watching the POVM, (c) one out of four preschool participants with autism increased the variety of scripted play-associated language utterances, (d) two out of four preschool participants with autism increased the variety of spontaneous play-associated language utterances, and (e) three out of four preschool participants with autism decreased the frequency of inappropriate play behaviors. In reference to maintenance of behaviors, (a) all four participants maintained the variety of scripted symbolic play actions, (b) all four participants maintained the variety of spontaneous symbolic play actions, (c) one out of four participants maintained the variety of scripted play-associated language utterances, (d) two out of four participants maintained the variety of spontaneous play-associated language utterances, and (e) three out of four participants maintained a reduction in the frequency of inappropriate play behaviors. Regarding generalization of behaviors for the dependent variables, (a) two out of four of the participants demonstrated a variety of scripted symbolic play actions from the intervention play set when playing with another car-based play set, (b) all four participants demonstrated a variety of spontaneous symbolic play actions during generalization with a different car-based play set, (c) one out of four participants produced a variety of scripted play-associated language utterances from the intervention during play with a different car-based play set, (d) two out of four participants produced a variety of spontaneous play-associated language utterances when playing with the generalization play set, and (e) three out of four participants were able to maintain a reduced frequency of inappropriate play behaviors during generalization probes. The results of the regulated randomization test indicated a statistical difference between the students' variety of scripted play actions and frequency of inappropriate play behaviors. There was no statistical difference between the students' variety of spontaneous play actions, scripted language utterances, or spontaneous language utterances. (Abstract shortened by UMI.). [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Preschool Education; Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A