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ERIC Number: ED548966
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 196
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: 978-1-2673-3973-7
When Money Really Matters: Tying Resources of Specific Programmatic and Instructional Elements to Student Academic Growth
Goetz, Michael Eric
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
This study explores the cost-effectiveness ratios associated with individual tutoring, intensive reading/language arts instruction, and a focus on core subject areas. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K) database, this study analyzes these programs using a three-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) with a nationally representative sample of the FY 2000 first-grade, U.S. population. Each of the programmatic variables, which exist at the student-, classroom-, and school-levels, are linked to costs and correlate with student growth and performance. Cost-effectiveness ratios show comparisons of programs which have been found to be statistically, positively significant. The magnitude of these ratios depends on the effects methodology used as well as the program costs. As wide variations exist in effects and costs, several sensitivity analyses illustrates cost-effectiveness results that may influence policy decisions. The major findings of this study are that tutoring, a reading/language arts focus, and an emphasis on core academic subjects have small, but significant effects on student academic growth and performance, depending on the effects model used. Effects results indicate a base model range of d = -0.45 for tutoring to d = 0.22 for a reading focus, and costs from $328 per student for extended reading time to $5,250 per student for tutoring. Overall, models find that increased time a student experiences instruction in reading/language arts produce the most stable cost-effectiveness ratios across models (CER range = 0.00028 to 0.00067), a core emphasis produces the highest ratio (CER = 0.00044), and all CERs are positive and statistically significant with the use of a model investigating the growth of students t-scores across a year's time. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Grade 1; Primary Education; Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey