NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
ERIC Number: ED548674
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 234
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: 978-1-2673-3480-0
Student-Instructor Interaction: The Relationship between Instructor Immediacy Behaviors and Student Out-of-Class Communication Channel Selection Preferences
Westwick, Joshua N.
ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, University of South Dakota
The significance of student-instructor relationships within and outside of the classroom is well understood throughout higher education. Research has established that positive student-instructor relationships are essential to student success and development (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1979; Woodside, Wong, & West, 1999). Recently, scholars have focused their attention on the importance of out-of-class communication on the student/instructor relationship. Despite the previous research on out-of-class communication, there are limited data providing information on the relationship between out-of-class communication channel preferences and instructor immediacy behavior. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between the preference choice of communication channel for students engaging in out-of-class communication based on student perceptions of their instructors' verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors. Additionally, this study identified the differences in student communication channel selection based on perceived instructor verbal and nonverbal immediacy as a function of instructor gender and student gender. The population of this study consisted of 331 undergraduate students enrolled in the basic speech course at a Midwestern university. Descriptive and inferential statistics including Pearson correlation coefficient were used to determine the strength of the relationship between the variables. The findings of the study demonstrated that as students' perceptions of instructors' nonverbal immediacy increases, students' likelihood for engaging in out-of-class communication with those instructors before or after class and during the instructors' office hours also increases. Additionally, this study found that as students' perceptions of instructors' verbal immediacy increases, students' likelihood for communicating with their instructors before or after class, during office hours, by phone, and by email message also increased. Also, consistent with previous research, this study found that instructor gender does relate to out-of-class communication and immediacy (Jaasma & Koper, 2002). Although this study did not measure the quantity of out-of-class communication, it did find differences amongst student gender and instructor gender based on verbal immediacy. However, no notable patterns were identified between student gender and instructor nonverbal immediacy and students' preference for out-of-class communication. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A