**ERIC Number:**ED547205

**Record Type:**Non-Journal

**Publication Date:**2012

**Pages:**222

**Abstractor:**As Provided

**Reference Count:**N/A

**ISBN:**978-1-2675-4017-1

**ISSN:**N/A

The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

Curry, Steven James

ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Lindenwood University

This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second semester mathematics assessments and proficient or advanced descriptor on the mathematics Missouri Assessment Program tests. Timed multiplication fact quizzes were administered to eighth grade students. Speed-recall scores were measured by the number of accurate answers in a 45-second time frame. Fluency was obtained by a student score of 35 accurate answers in a time frame of one minute and 48 seconds. Reading level grade equivalency was measured by the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test. A "z" test for difference in proportions analyzed differences in proportions of students who exhibited higher level mathematics achievement, proficiency on mathematics MAP, and a reading level of eighth grade or above. A t test for difference in means compared multiplication fact speed-recall scores and fluency scores generated by algebra students to those generated by pre-algebra students. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was calculated to analyze relationships between higher level mathematics achievement, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade level equivalency. No relationship was found between higher level mathematics, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency for students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Data supported measurable differences in comparisons of multiplication fact speed-recall scores and fluency scores generated by algebra students to those generated by pre-algebra students. Measureable differences were found for pre-algebra students between the proportion with an average of 80% or above on first and second semester mathematics assessments and the proportion with multiplication fact fluency. The proportion of students with fact fluency was significantly higher than that of students who scored 80% or higher on mathematics assessments. No other differences were identified. Data from this study did not support a major contribution from multiplication fact speed-recall and fluency to higher level mathematics achievement. However, further study involving other grade levels and longitudinal timelines is indicated to define the influence of multiplication fact knowledge on higher level mathematics. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]

Descriptors: Statistical Analysis, Correlation, Mathematics Instruction, Multiplication, Knowledge Level, Reading Skills, Grade 8, Algebra, Mathematics Skills, Recall (Psychology), Scores, Reaction Time, Standardized Tests

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml

**Publication Type:**Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations

**Education Level:**Grade 8; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Elementary Education; Secondary Education

**Audience:**N/A

**Language:**English

**Sponsor:**N/A

**Authoring Institution:**N/A

**Identifiers - Location:**Missouri

**Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys:**Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests