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ERIC Number: ED547046
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 160
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: 978-1-2675-2332-7
The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence
Warren, Richard Daniel
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, The Florida State University
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United States were randomly assigned to one of three levels of independent variable: Absence of Adaptive Confidence Strategies Condition (non-adaptive, or NA), Adaptive Confidence Strategies with Program Control Condition (PC), or Adaptive Confidence Strategies with Shared Control Condition (SC). In the NA condition, learners received instructionally sound CAI that did not measure nor respond to changes in learner confidence during the learning process. In the other two conditions, learners received instructionally sound CAI that did measure and respond to changes in learner confidence by implementing various confidence building and confidence sustaining strategies during the learning process, but that differed in the amount of control allowed to learners. Implementing the adaptive confidence strategies involved the CAI program collecting learner performance data (e.g., from practice items) and learner self-reported confidence data (from an embedded confidence analysis), interpreting the data using a confidence diagnosis-prescription rubric in order to diagnose the confidence state of the learner, and finally prescribing confidence strategies based on the diagnosis. The two dependent variables were learning and learner confidence. Learning was measured using a posttest consisting of eight items that reflected the content taught in the CAI. Learner confidence was measured on the exit survey using a shortened form of the IMMS (Song, 1998). Both learning and learner confidence were expected to be greater for CAI containing adaptive confidence strategies than for CAI not containing adaptive confidence strategies. In addition, this study explored the effect that the extent of control (i.e., choice of learning task and branching) provided to learners in the form of an adaptive confidence strategy had on learning and learner confidence. The findings did support the hypothesis that incorporating adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound CAI can improve learner confidence (SC versus NA). The modest effect size of this finding is discussed in regards to possible limitations that prevented a larger effect to be observed. The findings did not support the hypothesis that incorporating adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound CAI can improve learning, and was thought to be partly a result of the overall effectiveness of the CAI across all conditions. Findings for the exploratory question suggested that affording learners an extra amount of appropriate control in choices of learning activities and promotion can overall instill greater confidence in learners. Although for the present study, affording this control did not lead to significant differences in learning, affording this control did apparently result in higher learner confidence, which could in turn result in greater amounts of sustained motivation or greater likelihood at approaching more challenging tasks in longer term interventions. These findings and results were discussed in relation to their implications to the research area of adaptive motivational systems and the field of instructional design, limitations that may have prevented observations of larger effects, future research directions that could be examined, and conclusions from the study. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: High School Equivalency Programs; High Schools; Adult Education; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A