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ERIC Number: ED546814
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 48
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 208
ISBN: 978-1-909437-19-7
Building High-Performing and Improving Education Systems: Teachers. Review
Slater, Liz
CfBT Education Trust
There is overwhelming evidence that teachers have the most effect on pupil outcomes (closely followed by the quality of leadership). The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) concluded that: (1) teachers were central to school improvement; (2) in order to improve the quality and fairness of education, teachers had to be skilled and able to teach very well; and (3) all students had to be taught by good-quality teachers. In fragile states, as elsewhere, besides teaching formal knowledge and skills (such as literacy and numeracy), teachers pass on values such as "tolerance" and "citizenship." They also pass on information crucial to survival, such as health education. The evidence on the impact of teachers has been cited widely. As a result of the drive for school improvement, in many countries there has been increasing government involvement in policies relating to the recruitment, training, management and reward of teachers. Generally speaking, systems have taken broadly similar approaches. Where this has led to the relative exclusion of the profession itself from decision-making, there is a risk of de-professionalisation and loss of status. These changes, in turn, make teaching less attractive to high-quality potential entrants to the teaching profession. Consequently, this review looks at: (1) The characteristics of effective teachers; (2) Strategies for attracting high-quality candidates; (3) Recruitment to pre-service training; (4) Pre-service training and routes into the profession; (5) Deployment; and (6) Performance management, reward and professional development. It also covers briefly the role, training and deployment of para-professional and non-teaching staff. As with other component parts of high-performing and improving education systems (such as quality assurance, the curriculum and assessment) system leaders appear to focus on similar priorities. However, they have taken different approaches. There are important lessons to be learned from these different approaches, bearing in mind the different starting points, the cultural and political contexts and the available human and financial resources. Infrastructure and resources are significant, but evidence shows that teachers are the most critical parts of effective education systems. Governments aiming to raise standards need to ensure that all students have access to good-quality teachers, whatever their socio-economic status and wherever they live. [The National Foundation for Educational Research carried out the scoping and bibliographic work on which this review was based.]
CfBT Education Trust. 60 Queens Road, Reading, RG1 4BS, England. Tel: +44-11-8902-1296; Fax: +44-11-8902-1895; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education; Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: CfBT Education Trust (United Kingdom)