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ERIC Number: ED546794
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 56
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 172
ISBN: 978-1-907496-67-7
Effective Teaching: A Review of Research and Evidence
Ko, James; Sammons, Pamela
CfBT Education Trust
Teachers are one of the key elements in any school and effective teaching is one of the key propellers for school improvement. This review is concerned with how to define a teacher's effectiveness and what makes an effective teacher. It draws out implications for policymakers in education and for improving classroom practice. Teacher effectiveness is generally referred to in terms of a focus on student outcomes and the teacher behaviours and classroom processes that promote better student outcomes. This review, based upon research evidence, suggests that effective teachers: (1) are clear about instructional goals; (2) are knowledgeable about curriculum content and the strategies for teaching it; (3) communicate to their students what is expected of them, and why; (4) make expert use of existing instructional materials in order to devote more time to practices that enrich and clarify the content; (5) are knowledgeable about their students, adapting instruction to their needs and anticipating misconceptions in their existing knowledge; (6) teach students meta-cognitive strategies and give them opportunities to master them; (7) address higher- as well as lower-level cognitive objectives; (8) monitor students' understanding by offering regular appropriate feedback; (9) integrate their instruction with that in other subject areas; and (10) accept responsibility for student outcomes. The review shows that in order to achieve good teaching, good subject knowledge is a prerequisite. Also, the skilful use of well-chosen questions to engage and challenge learners, and to consolidate understanding, is an important feature, as is the effective use of assessment for learning. It goes on to identify a number of characteristics of good schools, suggesting they: (1) establish consistency in teaching and learning across the organisation; (2) engender a culture of professional debate and developmental lesson observation; (3) rigorously monitor and evaluate what they are doing; (4) prioritise the teaching of literacy, especially in a child's early years; and (5) focus on the needs, interests and concerns of each individual learner. [This report was written with Linda Bakkum.]
CfBT Education Trust. 60 Queens Road, Reading, RG1 4BS, England. Tel: +44-11-8902-1296; Fax: +44-11-8902-1895; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: CfBT Education Trust (United Kingdom); Hong Kong Institute of Education (China); University of Oxford (England), Department of Education