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ERIC Number: ED545414
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 174
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: 978-1-2675-4793-4
An Investigation of the Effects of Opportunities to Respond and Intelligence on Sight Word Retention Using Incremental Rehearsal
Johnson, Kade Ryan
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Utah
High opportunities to respond (OTR) have been touted as being a key factor in a popular and effective drill procedure called incremental rehearsal (IR). However, IR has also been criticized because it takes more instructional time than other drill procedures and can be less time efficient. The current study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of a high (44 OTR), medium (27 OTR), and low (14 OTR) OTR version of IR using 23 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students. Eleven students had low IQ scores (M = 68.18, SD = 6.82) and 12 students had average IQ scores (M = 101.00, SD = 6.63). Students were taught six Esperanto words during each condition. Effectiveness was based on 1- and 3-week retention measures and efficiency was determined by evaluating the number of words initially learned, retained at 1 week, and retained at 3 weeks per minute of instruction. A within-subjects repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate both the number of words recalled and the number of words recalled per minute of instruction. Results for both participant groups demonstrated that the high and medium OTR conditions were equally effective. However, students retained the most words per minute of instruction during the medium OTR condition, so this condition was the most time efficient. The number of words retained 1 week after instruction during the high and medium OTR conditions was not significantly different for the two participant groups. However, the number of words retained 3 weeks after instruction during the high and medium OTR conditions was significantly different for the two participant groups, suggesting that students in the low IQ group forgot a significant number of words between the 1- and 3-week retention measures, whereas the average IQ group did not. Limitations and implications for practitioners and future researchers are discussed. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 6; Intermediate Grades; Middle Schools; Grade 8; Junior High Schools; Secondary Education; Grade 7
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A