ERIC Number: ED545256
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Reference Count: N/A
TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among Reading, Mathematics, and Science Achievement at the Fourth Grade--Implications for Early Learning
Martin, Michael O., Ed.; Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.
International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement
TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) is an international assessment of mathematics and science at the fourth and eighth grades that has been conducted every four years since 1995, with the most recent assessment in 2011. PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) is an international assessment of reading comprehension at the fourth grade that has been conducted every five years since 2001. In total, approximately 325,000 students participated in PIRLS 2011, including countries assessing students at the sixth as well as the fourth grades, regional participants or language benchmarking efforts, and prePIRLS (an easier version of PIRLS) for students who are still developing their reading skills. Both TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 continue series' of international assessments in mathematics, science, and reading conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational (IEA). IEA pioneered international comparative assessments of educational achievement in the 1960s to gain a deeper understanding of the effects of policies and practices across countries' different systems of education. In 2011, the TIMSS and PIRLS data collection schedules came into alignment for the first time in the history of these international assessments. This provided countries with the opportunity to assess their fourth grade students in three fundamental curricular areas: mathematics, science, and reading. However, more pertinent to the present report, 34 countries and three benchmarking entities took advantage of this unique opportunity to assess the same students in all three subjects. Equally important, because the PIRLS assessment includes a parent questionnaire that provides information describing students' home environments and supports for learning, this home environment information was available for the first time with TIMSS data as well. Taken together, the fourth grade students in these 34 countries and three benchmarking participants have achievement data in the three core academic areas--reading, mathematics, and science--accompanied by an extensive array of background questionnaire data about the home, school, and classroom contexts for learning these three subjects. Having data on the same students makes it possible to conduct a range of investigations of the important characteristics of home and school influencing early learning, while controlling for extraneous factors. Researchers can apply a variety of modeling techniques to explore these important issues by examining the interrelationships among their underlying components. To facilitate this research, the TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center created a special international database including only fourth grade students assessed in all three subjects, and achievement scores in reading, mathematics, and science were estimated based on a multidimensional scaling or reading, mathematics, and science together (Foy, 2013). The purpose of the special database is to have the most appropriate basis for studying relationships among reading, mathematics, and science teaching and learning. It is anticipated that the primary value of this special TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 data will be realized through in-depth national research, as participating countries use the data for school improvement at the primary level. The intention of this initial book examining relationships among reading, mathematics, and science teaching and learning is to illustrate the potential of the special TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 database and to make some headway in the analysis process. The hope is that that the four chapters of this book will inspire many others to conduct further research and mine this valuable data. Following an introduction by Ina V. S. Mullis and Michael O. Martin, the content are as follows: (1) Profiles of Achievement across Reading, Mathematics, and Science at the Fourth Grade (Ina V.S. Mullis); (2) The Impact of Reading Ability on TIMSS Mathematics and Science Achievement at the Fourth Grade: An Analysis by Item Reading Demands (Ina V. S. Mullis, Michael O. Martin, and Pierre Foy); (3) Effective Schools in Reading, Mathematics, and Science at the Fourth Grade (Michael O. Martin, Pierre Foy, Ina V. S. Mullis, and Laura M. O'Dwyer); and (4) Effects of Home Background on Student Achievement in Reading, Mathematics, and Science at the Fourth Grade (Jan-Eric Gustafsson, Kajsa Yang Hansen, and Monica Rosén). Individual chapters contain references.
Descriptors: Student Evaluation, Mathematics Achievement, Science Achievement, Grade 4, Grade 8, Reading Achievement, Reading Comprehension, Grade 6, Correlation, Reading Ability, Instructional Effectiveness, Family Involvement, Parents as Teachers, Foreign Countries, Benchmarking, Classification, Holistic Approach, Reading Difficulties, Discriminant Analysis, Interaction, Cognitive Ability, Generalization, Difficulty Level, Family Environment, Student Characteristics, Path Analysis, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Differences, International Programs, Hypothesis Testing, Coding, Educational Environment
International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Herengracht 487, Amsterdam, 1017 BT, The Netherlands. Tel: +31-20-625-3625; Fax: +31-20-420-7136; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Web site: http://www.iea.nl
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Tests/Questionnaires; Numerical/Quantitative Data
Education Level: Grade 4; Grade 6; Grade 8; Elementary Secondary Education; Elementary Education
Authoring Institution: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement; Boston College, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center
Identifiers - Location: Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Botswana; Canada; Croatia; Czech Republic; Finland; Georgia; Germany; Honduras; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iran; Ireland; Italy; Lithuania; Malta; Morocco; Norway; Oman; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russia; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Taiwan; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom (Northern Ireland)
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Progress in International Reading Literacy Study; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study