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ERIC Number: ED544763
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Feb
Pages: 8
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 1
WWC Review of the Report "A Written Language Intervention for At-Risk Second Grade Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Process Assessment of the Learner Lesson Plans in a Tier 2 Response-to-Intervention (RtI) Model." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review
What Works Clearinghouse
The study examined the effects of "Process Assessment of the Learner" ("PAL"), a writing expression curriculum. The program was tested with second-grade students in a suburban-rural school district in the southeastern United States. Three sections of PAL lessons were implemented in the district as a small-group curriculum supplement--Talking Letters, Spelling, and Handwriting and Composition. Study authors randomly assigned two cohorts of at-risk students in seven schools to either an intervention group that received PAL (68 students) or a comparison group that did not receive PAL (70 students). At-risk students were identified as students who scored at or below the 25th percentile for their grade on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II (WIAT-II) Written Expression Subtest. The effects of PAL were identified by comparing the performance of 66 students in the intervention group and 63 students in the comparison group (after attrition) on the WIAT-II Written Expression Subtest in the fall of third grade. The research described in this report meets WWC evidence standards without reservations The analysis of the impact of PAL on the achievement of at-risk students is a well-executed randomized controlled trial with low attrition. However, the authors' non-experimental comparison of the performance of at-risk students receiving PAL to the performance of typical students did not meet WWC evidence standards because the groups were not equivalent at baseline. The study authors found that the average written expression skills of the PAL intervention group were higher than those of the comparison group at the beginning of third grade, based on an analysis of growth trajectories. However, the WWC did not confirm that the observed effect of the PAL intervention on growth in written expression skills was statistically significant. The following are appended: (1) Study details; (2) Outcome measures for the written expression domain; and (3) Study findings for the written expression domain. A glossary of terms is also included. [The following study is the focus of this Single Study review: Hooper, S. R., Costa, L. C., McBee, M., Anderson, K. L., Yerby, D. C., Childress, A., & Knuth, S. B. (2013). "A written language intervention for at-risk second grade students: A randomized controlled trial of the process assessment of the learner lesson plans in a tier 2 response-to-intervention (RtI) model." "Annals of Dyslexia," 66(1), 44-64.]
What Works Clearinghouse. P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393. Tel: 866-503-6114; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 2; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: What Works Clearinghouse (ED)
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test
IES Funded: Yes