ERIC Number: ED542448
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1916
Reference Count: 0
Some Facts Concerning Manual Arts and Homemaking Subjects in One Hundred Fifty-Six Cities. Bulletin, 1916, No. 32
Park, Joseph C.; Harlan, Charles L.
Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior
The confused and chaotic condition which characterizes vocational and industrial education at the present time is evidence of the fact that certain far-reaching and fundamental adjustments are going on in the educational world. These adjustments involve, on the one hand, the school in all of its aspects and at all of its stages, and, on the other hand, the various industries and occupations with all of their social and economic implications. This bulletin reports findings of a an investigation to determine the existing conditions and practices in the manual arts and homemaking subjects with reference to: (1) Nature and character of the work in the different grades and in the high school; (2) The number of minutes per week and the relative amount of time devoted to these subjects; (3) Methods used and their adaptation to age and grade of pupils; (4) Nature and amount of correlation with other subjects; (5) Methods of disposing of finished products of shops and kitchens; (6) The dominant aims in the teaching of these subjects and the prevalence of each; (7) Enrollment in vocational courses in elementary and in high schools; (8) Cost per pupil in different schools and cities; (9) Percentage of pupils entering work for which manual arts and homemaking courses prepared them; and (10) Norms and standards of practice in all the above. Responses to an 8-question survey were received from 156 city school systems in 39 States. Data on three topics were so incomplete and unreliable that they are excluded from the report. In terms of the central tendencies represented by the data presented, it is possible to state certain standards of practice in the teaching of manual arts and home-making subjects. Survey responses indicate these central tendencies: (1) The dominant aim is prevocational in character, giving knowledge of and a low degree of facility in the use of tools, materials and processes (2) There is a great variety in the kinds of work offered, but the general tendency appears to be work in the paper in the grammar grades, joinery and cabinet making for boys in the grammar grades, and sewing and cooking for girls in the grammar grades; (3) Time given to these subjects amounts to about 75 minutes per week in the lower grades, 90 minutes weekly in the seventh and eighth grade, and over 300 minutes per week in the high school; (4) Systematic graded exercises are the most frequently used methods of presenting the work; and (5) Students are frequently permitted to keep the product of their handiwork. (Contains 13 tables; 9 figures; and 1 footnote.) [Best copy available has been provided.]
Descriptors: Educational History, Urban Schools, Home Economics Education, Vocational Education, Educational Change, High Schools, Educational Practices, School Schedules, Elementary Schools, Curriculum Design, Educational Principles, Enrollment, Costs, Education Work Relationship, Standards, School Districts, School Surveys, National Surveys, Questionnaires, Teaching Methods, Industrial Education, Males, Females, Gender Differences, Program Descriptions, Student Evaluation, Prevocational Education, Job Skills, Educational Objectives, Educational Philosophy
Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior.
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools; Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education (ED)