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ERIC Number: ED541706
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 78
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 108
ISBN: ISBN-978-9-2920-1140-6
Grade Retention during Compulsory Education in Europe: Regulations and Statistics
Borodankova, Olga; Coutinho, Ana Sofia Almeida
Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, European Commission
This study is a contribution from the Eurydice Network to the debate on school failure and early school leaving within the framework of the European Commission's policy on education and training. In all education systems, in one form or another, pupil progress is assessed throughout the school year and various measures are put in place to support pupils who are having difficulties to ensure that they make satisfactory progress. This study is focussed on the regulations in force relating to the repetition of a school year in primary and lower secondary general education in Eurydice Network countries. This corresponds to the period of compulsory full-time education in the majority of countries. The analysis covers three important stages of compulsory education. Chapter 1 is devoted to access to primary education. The normal starting age of primary education and the particular time during the year when a child is deemed to have reached this age varies between education systems. Chapters 2 and 3 are concerned with the regulations linked to progression and moving up to the next class during primary and lower secondary education respectively. These two chapters explore several aspects relating to repetition including the established criteria which govern the procedure, restrictions in place to limit its use, opportunities provided to help pupils catch up and the participants involved in the decision-making process. The study relates to the school year 2009/10 and covers all countries in the Eurydice Network. A glossary is included. (Contains 17 figures and 20 footnotes.)
Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, European Commission. Available from EU Bookshop. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: European Commission, Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA)
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Program for International Student Assessment