ERIC Number: ED541202
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1919
Education in Italy. Bulletin, 1919, No. 36
Montgomery, Walter A.
Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior
The economic and social exigencies brought about for Italy by her entrance into the war in May, 1915, inevitably led her educational thinkers to submit her traditional system of education to more careful scrutiny than ever before, and to recognize how inadequate it was along certain lines to meet the demands thrust upon it by the new conditions. The first results of the consequent attempt at readjustment were seen in the enlarged scope given the schools--the teachers, the pupils, and the buildings--and in their vigorous cooperation with the nation-wide organizations founded to minister to the immediate needs of the refugees from the invaded Provinces, to relieve the families of men called to the service, and to supply school facilities to an overwhelming influx of pupils. The local and provincial teachers became, very logically, the executive heads of much of this activity; and pronounced benefits accrued to the schools in increased respect for them and popular dependence upon them. Administrative officials, teachers, and laymen interested in education were not slow in taking advantage of the new strategic position of the schools to initiate a propaganda of reform, which, taken up by the educational and secular press, begin to direct itself definitely toward legislative action. This awakening of the nation, with the impetus given to educational interest, and the consequent testing of principles and methods hitherto held sacred from all criticism, constitutes the most valuable line for the review of educational matters in Italy for the past two years. Of the projects and plans broached, some naturally failed enactment into school law; but all show in their natural sequence from the lower to the higher, a uniform national desire to throw off the dead hand of traditionalism and to make education subserve the actual needs of the nation. This bulletin is divided into 4 parts. Part 1, Introduction, contains (1) Illiteracy. Part 2, Popular Education, presents: (2) Elementary schools; (3) Scuole popolare; (4) Rural schools; (5) Agricultural schools; (6) Vocational schools; (7) Extra-scholastic activities; (8) Hospital schools for wounded Italian soldiers; (9) Projected plans for schools after the war. Part 3, Middle Schools, contains: (10) Industrial and commercial schools; (11) Technical schools; (12) Normal schools, and teachers institutes; and (13) Ginnasi and Licei. Part 4, Universities and Higher Education, completes the bulletin. [Best copy available has been provided.]
Descriptors: Popular Education, Illiteracy, Vocational Schools, Foreign Countries, Rural Schools, Educational Legislation, School Law, Middle Schools, Educational History, War, Elementary Schools, Agricultural Education, Extracurricular Activities, Hospitals, Veterans, Military Personnel, Planning, Industrial Education, Technical Education, Teacher Education Programs, Colleges
Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior.
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Education; Middle Schools
Authoring Institution: Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education (ED)
Identifiers - Location: Italy