ERIC Number: ED537954
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Mar-14
Reference Count: 0
Disproportional High School Suspension Rates by Race and Ethnicity. Research Brief
Education Partnerships, Inc.
One of the most consistent--and disturbing--findings in educational research for more than 30 years is that students of color at all grade levels and across the country are suspended at significantly higher rates than their white counterparts (Children's Defense Fund, 1975; Dunbar, C. & Villarruel, F. A., 2002; Gordon, R., Piana, L. D., & Keleher, T., 2000; Krezemien, M. P., Leone, P. E., & Achilles, G. M., 2006; Nieto, S., 2004; Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., Nardo, A. C., & Peterson, R. L., 2002). In fact, African American, Latino, and Native American students "are suspended or expelled in numbers vastly disproportionate to those of their white peers" (Gordon, et al., p. 2). Disproportionate treatment of students based on race (or class) can certainly be traced to entrenched values and beliefs that have shaped American social systems and institutions. Evidence suggests "a deep pattern of institutional racism" and, more recently because of Zero Tolerance policies, a "special kind of "racial profiling"" that appears to be occurring consistently across the country (Gordon, et al., p. 1-2). Because the problem is systemic, the solution should be comprehensive, multi-faceted, and strategic. Strategies and suggestions that may be helpful in constructing a comprehensive plan for equitable disciplinary practices are offered. A list of references and online resources is included.
Descriptors: Suspension, Students, Race, Educational Research, Social Systems, Zero Tolerance Policy, American Indian Students, White Students, Hispanic American Students, African American Students, Comparative Analysis, Disproportionate Representation, Racial Bias, Ethnicity, Student Behavior
Education Partnerships, Inc. Web site: http://www.educationpartnerships.org
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: Education Partnerships, Inc. (EPI)