ERIC Number: ED537669
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Jan
Reference Count: 0
Time for Learning
Johnston, J. Howard
Education Partnerships, Inc.
The amount of time allocated for learning and the way that time is used is one of the few variables that can be influenced rather directly by school leaders. Fortunately, it is also a variable that has shown consistent links to student performance. Now that schools are focused directly, and in some cases exclusively, on student achievement, there is a renewed interest on the ways that time can be found, allocated, organized, and modified to enhance learning opportunities for students. In his 1990 summary of time/learning research, David Berliner describes several types of time which, to differing degrees, fall under the control of school leaders and may affect student achievement outcomes: (1) Allocated time; (2) Engaged time; (3) Time-on-task; (4) Academic learning time (ALT); (5) Transition time; (6) Waiting time; and (7) Pace. All of these types of time affect student learning to some extent, so it is important for school leaders to consider all of them in planning for effective time use in their schools. To begin, principals should think about several broad initiatives to focus the school's staff on time and how to use this valuable resource to full advantage. A large body of literature on the subject can be distilled into these big ideas: (1) Consider the Whole Day; (2) Protect the Academic Day; (3) Eliminate Time Wasters; and (4) Consider technology. A list of references and resources is included.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Time on Task, Educational Opportunities, Time Factors (Learning), Time Perspective, Time Management, Scheduling, Program Length, Critical Path Method, Leadership Effectiveness, Instructional Leadership, Change Strategies, Educational Change
Education Partnerships, Inc. Web site: http://www.educationpartnerships.org
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: Education Partnerships, Inc. (EPI)