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ERIC Number: ED535896
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 172
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-2670-3193-8
From Bologna to Berlin 1999-2003: The Initial Steps of the Bologna Process and Creation of the European Higher Education Area
Thompson, Timothy Scott
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
The processes of European integration and the forming of the European Union begun at the end of World War II did not include education as part of that agenda. As revealed in a review of the literature, education came into the process through indirect means. The processes of European integration and the forming of the European Union have fostered processes that have influence domestic policies. Characterized as Europeanization, those processes have influenced and are at the root of European nations forming an intergovernmental cross-border agreement in 1999 to change their higher education systems. Known as the Bologna Declaration, the reforms called for focus on six objectives and include a key principle of European integration, mobility. This dissertation focuses on reviewing the antecedents to the Bologna Process, the direct influences of the Bologna Declaration, and the reports prepared for the 2003 Berlin follow-up meeting that are statements of the progress toward the implementation of the six objectives of the Bologna Declaration. This review suggests that the key instruments of change, harmonization of higher education, and the building of the European Higher Education Area are the first four objectives of the Bologna Process: (1) a system of easily readable and comparable degrees; (2) a system based on two main cycles: undergraduate and graduate; (3) a system of credits, and; (4) the promotion of mobility. Further, the Bologna Declaration represents a process of the Europeanization of higher education. The findings suggest that by 2003 while in the majority nations articulate commitments to the Bologna Process and progress toward the implementation of policy changes, what steps were taken to achieve the four main objectives of the Bologna process depend on the degree to which nations carry out the reforms called for in the Bologna Declaration. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: European Union