NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
ERIC Number: ED535580
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 124
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1095-2938-8
The Effect of Cognitive Imagery Training on Spelling Performance with Students with Spelling Skills Deficits
Webber, Laura A.
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas
Spelling skills are essential for school success (Fulk & Stormont-Spurgin, 1995; Matz, 1994). Teachers need an efficient method for teaching spelling strategies to students with learning disabilities. Although research in spelling has attempted to improve spelling instruction for teachers in classrooms (Henderson, 1985; Graham & Miller, 1979; Fuchs, & Deno, 1991; Keller, 2002; Graham, 1999), teacher training in spelling has centered on student self-instruction (Jones, 2001; Johnston, 2001). Darch et al., (2000), reported that students with learning disabilities "need curricula which provide an intense, systematic method for teaching specific spelling strategies" (pg. 25). Learning To Spell (LeTSpell) is a strategy developed by combining a visual imagery technique and a modified model of training. The model of training included: (1) baseline, (2) participant commitment, (3) strategy presentation, (4) imitation, (5) rehearsal I, (6) rehearsal II, and (7) advanced rehearsal using a manualized approach adapted from studies conducted with students with learning disabilities (Schumaker, Deshler, Zemitzsch, & Warner, 1993; Appendix B; Webber & Lee, 2003). The visual imagery technique included: (1) look at the word and read it aloud; (2) say each letter of the word aloud and cover it; (3) close eyes and try to see the word; (4) write the word from memory and check it; (5) if correct, repeat Steps 1-4 two more times; and (6) if incorrect, start at Step 1 again. The purpose of the current study was to measure the impact of LeTSpell on the spelling performance of six students with specific learning disabilities. This study sought to replicate the results of Webber and Lee (2003) with additional students using a multiple-baseline design to assess the impact of using LeTSpell. It was hypothesized that students would correctly spell a higher percentage of words, after learning the strategy compared with what they would do with only regular classroom instruction. The results are presented within the context of how the strategy was used with similar children in the classroom setting and within the context of available spelling research. This study indicates that the LeTSpell strategy is effective in significantly increasing the number of correct letter sequences produced by students with spelling skills deficits. Limitations and implications are discussed. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A