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ERIC Number: ED535468
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 248
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1094-2289-4
The Effects of a Computer Assisted Reading Program on the Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension of At-Risk, Urban First Grade Students
Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University
The current investigation studied the effects of a computer software program of the oral reading fluency and comprehension of eight, first grade students. These students were identified as being either "at-risk" or "some-risk" for reading failure on the DIBELS oral reading fluency winter benchmark assessment. A multiple probe design was used to determine if the Read Naturally software edition would increase the ORF, as measure as correct words per minute, on treatment and generalization probes. Also measured were the percentage of comprehension questions answered correctly on treatment probes and word retell on both treatment and generalization probes. The Read Naturally software edition consisted of a repeated reading sequence activity that the participants engaged in on a laptop computer. The sequence consisted of seven components: key words, one-minute cold reading, read along, practice reading, comprehension quiz, and pass timing. Treatment sessions lasted approximately thirty minutes and were conducted three to four times per week, for between 14 and 16 weeks. Pretest and posttest measure were collected to determine if the participants' scores on these test would increase following the completion of the intervention. The results of the intervention demonstrated the effectiveness of the Read Naturally program on the OFR and comprehension of the participants on treatment probes. All of the participants were able to increase their scores on these measures over baseline levels; however, the results were not as evident for generalization probes. Many of the participants were not able to increase their ORF on generalization probes to benchmark levels. Due to this failure to increase reading fluency a second treatment phase was implemented with increase fluency requirements. During this second phase 5 out of 8 participants were able to increase their ORF to benchmark levels on generalization passages. Additionally, 5 out of 8 participants were able to decrease their DIBELS ORF risk status on winter benchmark assessments. These finding support research on the use of repeated reading strategies, but extend the research in several ways. First, the results suggest the computer assisted reading programs are a viable means to supplement classroom instruction. Second, they suggest that generalization might be promoted by increasing fluency goal criteria on practice passage reading. Finally, the results suggest that repeated reading strategies can be used successful with first grade students. Implications for classroom use, limitations, and directions for future research are presented. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)
IES Cited: ED544197