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ERIC Number: ED534634
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 170
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-2670-1927-1
An Examination of the Effectiveness of Supplementary Educational Services on the Reading Achievement of at Risk Elementary Students
Thomas, Nicole A.
ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Northcentral University
Students, who are at risk of academic failure, are reading and achieving below their grade level yet the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires that all students perform on or above grade level. Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Education Program (NAEP) showed that 37% of fourth graders across the United States are reading below grade level. There has been an increased interest in extended time programs and supplementary educational services (SES). Schools have provided SES to students who are at risk of academic failure, hoping that SES will enhance academic gains. To investigate the use of SES to produce academic gains, this phenomenological study identified the perceptions and experiences of SES reading instructors regarding various aspects of SES, including: the preferred time of day for implementation, the most effective type or model of program, length of program per day or per week, supervision of SES and their rationale for each. The sample consisted of 10 elementary SES reading instructors from New York and New Jersey, who teach grades kindergarten through 5. The sample participated in audiotaped telephone interviews. Each interview was transcribed. The transcripts were returned to the respective participants for review and approval. The final step in the triangulation approach was that of collaborating with an outside evaluator in data analyses, which entailed identifying meaning units and recurring themes. The research yielded that SES was effective in improving at risk students' reading performance. It was concluded that SES should be offered in the afternoon, which served as an extension of the regular school day. Phonics was found to be the best model and the foundation for reading. There was consensus that SES should be offered at minimum 3 days per week and 30 minutes per day. SES was most effective when supervision entailed professional development, staff meetings to discuss the effectiveness of strategies and best practices among instructors, classroom observations and feedback. These findings may be helpful to practitioners and policymakers, in supporting children at risk of academic failure. Future research should entail rendering SES in the afternoon with two groups of SES instructors. The control group should not collaborate with the regular classroom teacher while the second group does collaborate. An analysis of students' performance should be done to determine whether or not collaboration between SES and regular classroom teachers is significant. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A